It’s something we’ve been wanting to do for a while, and now it’s finally possible. ADB via a Chromebook. This is possible thanks to developer Koushik Dutta. ChromeADB is new but already pretty powerful. For the time being, all you can use is the adb shell, and that’s it. Koush mentions that he has “most adb commands via command line” already working and that the RSA key for enabling USB debugging can take a while on a Chromebook.
This isn’t quite your go to space for everything ADB, but it’s an option if a Chromebook is your platform of choice. Chrome ADB is available now on the Chrome Web Store and supports all Android devices. On Windows however, you’ll still need the correct device drivers.
Source: +Koushik Dutta